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Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland and Hannover

1. Rulers since 1444

Kings of Scotland and Lords of Ulster
James II  (20 February 1437 - 6 August 1465)
James III  (6 August 1465 - 1 April 1487)
James IV (2 April 1487 - 31 December 1538)
Kings of Scotland and Ireland
James IV (2 April 1487 - 31 December 1538)
Mary I  (1 January 1538 - 27 July 1561)
James V (24 July 1576 - 9 November 1576)
   Prince-Consort Regent Sigismund (27 July 1561 - 1 July 1568)
   Regency Council (until 24 July 1576)
Interregnum (1576-1581)
James VI (14 July 1581 - 17 September 1610)
Kings of Scotland, England and Ireland
James VI and I (14 July 1581 - 17 September 1610 ; in England since 28 April 1603)
Henri I (17 September 1610 - 19 May 1629)
Alexander I (19 May 1629 - 9 August 1450)
Kings of Great Britain and Ireland
James VII and II (Regency from X to X) (

2. Politics under the Stuart Kings

Politics during the reign of James II 'The Lion of the Hills'

The Poltics of Scotland are complex like in every medieval country. The Highlanders to the north are not a fan of the feudalist ideals and they are hard to subdue. For now, they are loyal to the Crown.

In 1450, Scotland allied themselves with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The young Kazimierz Jagellion married the eldest daughter of King James II, Mary Stewart. This alliance was born from the common hatred towards the Kingdom of Denmark, who threatened both countries in the North Sea. 

At the end of the English-Ulsterian War, Scotland emerged as the new military dominant power in Britain. The year of 1452 marked the end of the petty squables in the Scottish Marshes, when Cumbria and Northumberland became part of Scotland. However, the nobility  asked for more privileges, to which James II agreed, granting them estates in the province of Cumbria. The Isle of Mann has been elevated from the status of Territory to State called the State of the Isles, marking the early plans to integrate the Isles into Kingdom of Scotland.

In November 1454, the Lordship of the Isles has been abolished, Lord MacDonald II had his ancestral homeland, estates, and titles seized by King James II of Scotland. With the money he collected from the McDonalds, James II created the Bank of Scotland.

The Personal Union with Ulster and James II's Irish Ambition

In 1458, the rule of Magginis Dynasty over the Earldom of Ulster ended. Fionola Magginis being the last member of her dynasty, through the marriage with the King of Scotland, made possible the personal union of Scotland and Ulster under James II. Local nobility in Ulster wasn't thrilled about this turn of events and one raised against the new ruler. Lord Adhamh Darcy mustered 5000 men to fight the Scottish forces in Ulaidh. All 5000 were slaughtered. 

The province of Sligeach has been granted to the Earldom of Ulster in order to appease the ever angrier Irish lords. Tyrconell found themselves in a corner and decided to become the vassal of Kingdom of Scotland. With England distracted, Scotland finally managed to gain control of the entire state of Ulster. Now the road to the entire Ireland lies open.

In 1462, half of the Irish isle was in Scottish control, many petty kingdoms and earldoms falling to the power of James II. He decided to end his military campaign with the conquest of Cill Dala. He tried to reconciliate with England, attending the coronation of Philip I of England, the greedy son of Henry IV. When he arrived home, a messenger from the Kingdom of Thomond was awaiting him with an offer of vassalisation. Turlough IV didn't want to take any chances with the future rulers of Scotland so he swore fealty to the Lion of the Hills. Soon, the Queen Regent of Munster and the Queen Regent of Leinster did the same. Thus, what James II did not conquer through the sword, he gained through fear.  

The unexpected death of Lady Liadain of Tyroconnel in 1464 brought the reign of Neachtan I Stuart, a distant relative of James II of Scotland. Neachtan and his line of succesion had ambitions of their own and they'll cause trouble for years to come.The Renaissance finally reached the shores of Scoltand in October 1464. James II decided to share the benefits to the lands of Ulster as well.

With the full island of Ireland on this control, James' attention moved to the islands held unjustly by the Kingdom of Norway. He decided to import cannons from Flanders in order to prepare a possible future reconquest of those islands. On 6 August, he was standing near one of these cannons, known as "the Lion", when it exploded and killed him. James was a politic, and singularly successful king. He was popular with the commoners, with whom, like most of the Stuarts, he socialised often, in times of peace and war.

In March 1472, Pope Pius II proclaimed James II a saint.

Politics during the reign of James III

The young James III married Sofie of Denmark in September 1465 at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh. Christian I of Denmark gave the Orkney and Shetland Islands to Scotland in lieu of a dowry. Sofie has been loved by the people throught her reign as Queen-Consort of Scotland

The War of the Roses started during his reign, in April 1471. The English nobles in London decided to support the House of York and Edward IV was crowned king. The news of conflict have been met with celebrations in Edinburgh, as now England was too busy to meddle in the affairs of Scotland anymore. The nobles of the Marches were already with their eyes on the lands south of them. 

The short-lived Scottish Pope and James III

Another unique event that happened to his reign was the nomination of Clemens VII as Pope, the former Cardinal of Lothian. While Clemens officialy adopted the Umbrian culture, he wad had a Scottish heart. He agreed to sign a military alliance with both England and Scotland and name James III the rightful ruler of Ireland. With the Curia control being the hands of Scotland, who knows what opportunities await?

However, the Scottish Papacy didn't last long. Clemens VII broke his promise to not intervene in any wars between Scotland and England. A few days later in 1477, James III wrote him a letter to express his immense dissapointment that not even a Pope that rode on the hills of Scotland could truly be a religious model and not a despot looking to expand his territories. Clemens didn't get to read the letter as he died a few days before in suspicious circumstances. The new Pope, Leo X, granted the Curia control to Denmark. 

The Adultery of Queen-Consort and the relations with the New Pope
James III was enraged he found out. He tried his luck the new Pope Leo X and ask for a divorce, but the Pope refused. Enraged by this, the nobles of Ulster convened to declare Statute in Restraint of Appeals, officialy demoting the Pope and instead raise the king to be the final legal authority in all means of religion. Soon after, the nobles passed the dissolution of monasteries act. As a devout catholic, James III was worried this will ruin his reputation with the other Catholic rulers. 

The Integration of Thomond
The O'brien family of Thomond has agreed to officialy join the Kingdom of Scotland, renouncing their titles of petty kings and instead becoming lords of Ireland.  Mucdach O'Brien agreed to start the same process in Leinster. Slowly, all Ireland will officialy be part of Scotland.

The Gift from France
Without consulting James III, the Emperor of France forced England to "gift" Scotland four provinces: Lancashire, York, Scarborough and Chester. The lands were devastaded by the War of the Roses and they didn't mean much to James. It would, however, cause a huge sense of revolt to the English nobles living in those provinces. Reluctantly, James III agreed to keep the new territories at the request of Charles VII. To ease the tensions, 

The Death of David Leslie
The greatest general of Scotland, the brave and fierce David Leslie, has died at the age of 80. The entire country is mourning him, the saviour of Ulster and the hammer that smelted down the false kings of Ireland. A three day ceremonial has been held in Edinburgh and the 1st Army of Scotland has been renamed "Leslie Dragoons" in his honour. Rest in peace, commander. The new general of the Scottish army is Ian Steward, a mediocre man.

Quest for the New World
Thanks to our Castillian friends, now we know that virgin lands lie west of us, just ready to be claimed by our country. In 1483, James III named Charles Kerr as Explorer with the mission to survey the new world. His first mission was to explore the North Sea. He found the land called Greenland.

Papal Rivalry
Denmark, the current Papal controller pressured Leo X to undo decisions, papal bulls and decrees of the previous Pope, including the title of "Ruler of Ireland". Preposterous. James III sent a letter to Leo and insulted him. 

Death of James III
While he lived a healthy and active live, that didn't stop pneumonia, that in the end got him. He died on 1 April 1487 and was buried near his faster. While he had many conflict, especially with his wife, history regards James as a good king, just like his father. History will remember him for recovering the Orkney and Shetland islands and accepting the grandious gift of Charles VII at the expense of English lords. 

Politics during the reign of James IV

Young King James fell in love with the enemy. He sought the hand of Mary Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII of England.  In a ceremony at the altar of Glasgow Cathedral on 2 June 1487, James confirmed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII of England. On 2 April 1488, to every noble's shock, James gifted the provinces of Chester, Scarborough, Hull  and Lancashire back to England. He vowed to return the unjustly occupation that started because of Charles VII. The two kings agreed to set the permanent border at the end of the Scottish Marches, now and forever. 

Suffice to say, the nobility was outraged with the new king. He reversed years of conquest with a single decision. When Prince James, James IV's eldest son was born, there were rumours that Mary Tudor had an affair and it's not James' real son. This rumour continued to hauntKing James IV for the years to come.

The Colony of Avalon
The first colony established by the Scottish Crown was Avalon, in Newfoundland. James nominated Donald Lindsay as the official colonist to administrate the colony. The forestal province will soon be home to many Scots.

The Protestant Reformation
A priest in Ansbach had enough with the Pope and his Cardinals. The Pope has been nothing but a thorn in Scotland's back ever since Clemens VII betrayed James III in the war against England. However, James IV remains a devout Catholic and defender of the faith. 

Cardinal McDonald's Policies Upset Nobles
Ever since James IV made one of the Scottish Cardinals a minister in the government, he has gone far beyond providing theological insights and innovated significantly in the administration of Scotland. Unfortunately, his suggestions of centralizing power are not possible without removing some authority from the nobles, who have begun to see him as an opportunist. James IV however would have none of it, saying that the minister is showing Scotland the path to the future. Enraged nobles revolted in Ayrshire but lost the battle. A more centralized Scotland is the future, after all.

Hunting Accident
His body has been draped in a white cloth now stained red by lost vitae. They say he was found by his horse, in a clearing in the woods. James is devastated by the news. At least now the rumours of illegatimacy will die with the never-was king James. Now James' second son Robert of only 6 years old is the heir to the throne.

Integration of Ulster
On 1 July 1511, the Earldom of Ulster was finally integrated into the Scottish Crownlands. Now James IV titles himself the King of Scotland and Ireland. All the Irish territories are now made into official States and the Irish culture is accepted throughout the Kingdom of Scotland. Hibernia et Caledonia qui in sempiternum. 


Death of James IV
The Jacobean Era is at an end. From James II to James IV, Scotland has remained strong, independent and loyal to its ideals. James IV has been found dead in his bed, two weeks after he refused to get out of his bedroom. Many say he was assasinated. We may never know the real cause of death. Now the throne belongs to soon to be crowned Robert IV. The senior nobles of united Scotland and Ireland have showed their devotion and ruled during the regency of Robert. 

Politics during the reign of Robert IV

One of the marking differences is that the nobles held more power in the years after the death of King James IV.  However, none held more power over the other, so no noble became a de facto leader during Robert's minority. 

In 1512, the reformation branched out and Calvinist started to emerge in continental Europe. The Scottish nobles remained true to the Pope though.

Crowning and Marriage
Robert IV was crowned King of Scotland and Ireland on 15 March 1515 and renewed the Auld Alliance by marrying Jeanne of Valois, the king Philippe VII's daughter, in Notre Dame de Paris.  The wedding was a great event: Francis I made a contract with six painters for the splendid decorations, and there were days of jousting at the Chateau du Louvre. 

Nova Scotia Colony
The Pope affirmed Scotland's legal right to Colonial Canada. Robert named the Colony Nova Scotia (New Scotland) and named Lord David Nasmyth to be the first Governor of Nova Scotia. This achievement was met with celebration all over the Kingdom. 

Mary Stuart, Heir to the Throne
Robert's firstborn daughter has been born on 23 February 1518. Jeanne's health condition deteriorated even more than recent after her birth. If Jeanne dies before she gives birth to a boy, Mary will become the first Queen of Scots.

The Church of England
Following the death of Queen Mary I of England, her sister Elizabeth has been crowned Queen. She decided to continue her father legacy and create a Church of England. Anglicanism is now spreading like a disease all over England. Scottish court looks in horror at their neighbours.

Scottish West Indies
The Second Colony of Scotland was the Scottish West Indies. Walter Johnstone was named the first Governor. 

Death of Robert IV
Following the death of Jeanne de Valois, Robert felt more depressed and eventually he succumbed to a mysterious illness. Whatever the cause of his illness, James was on his deathbed at Edinburgh Palace when his only surviving legitimate child, Mary Stuart, was visiting the country-side of Ireland with her friend. The news of her father's death came weeks later. On 1 January 1538, Mary was crowned Queen of Scots and Irish in the Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh.

Politics during the reign of Mary I

Being the first Queen, Mary had to start and break traditions. One thing would remain the same: the devoutness for Catholicism her father and grandfather had. Mary looks in disgust at Queen Elizabeth and her hubris in thinking she's the head of church. Jesus is humiliated day by day in London. But the time will come when London will speak Scots. Just you wait.  

Mary appointed her most trusted advisor and friend Catherine Know as council in her government in matters of naval warfare. The decision was met with surprise by the nobles. 

Mary's first marriage

On 16 May 1538, Mary married James Dunbar, Earl of Lauderdale and shortly after she gave birth to her firstborn son, James.  

Swedish War of Independence

In 1544, Mary I accepted the proposal of the Swedish lords to support the independence of Sweden. Mary grew tired of the Danish meddling in the North Sea and wanted to curb its power once and for all. Thus, she named Archibald Seton as General of the Leslie Dragoons and started numerous reforms in matters of military technology. She entrusted the Military Engineer Deirdre Marr with the defenses of forts. 

The Cardinal of Cumbria

On 1 January 1545, Pope Innocentius X named Keith O'Brien as Cardinal of Cumbria, now Scotland having two active cardinals in the Curia. Few days later, Sweden decided to finally go through with the independence plans and declared war on Denmark.

Death of James Dunbar

On 2 August 1546, Prince-Consort James died in the battle of Kolding, where England was laying siege. The news shattered Mary's heart and every piece of enthusiasm to actively participate in the war plans. She withdrew in her chambers for weeks. 

Marry and Sigismund Bure

After the war, Gustav I and his brother Sigismund visited Edinburg. Mary and Sigismund fell in love at first sight. They married at Holyrood Palace on 8 February 1550. 

Scotland - Now an Admnistrative Monarchy

On 27 November 1551, through numerous reforms in the administrative, judiciary and political areas, Mary changed the government of Scotland into an Administrative Monarchy, now the monarch relying on a strict organization of political matters and bureaucracy.

The Evangelical Union

In 1552, the Evangelical Union was formed. While Mary did not care for the continental weaklings in the Holy Roman Empire, she looked with interest at possible land grabs in Netherlands, currently being held by the Emperor. In October of the same year, France joined the Protestant League, in order to further their interests. England, of course, reacted by joining the Catholic side. Sweden the followed Elizabeth's path and joined the Catholic league as well. With Scotland's allies on both side, Mary decided to stay neutral for the time being. Sigismund started to get annoyed by Mary's pasiveness. When the Ottoman and Russian forces joined the Protestant league, there was no doubt in Mary's mind that this conflict was not worth her time and her country's sacrifice. 

A New Tsar in Russia

The Interregnum in Russia finally ended, the side of Ivan IV Rurikovich winning over the squabbling nobles who wanted the throne. Mary was dissapointed by this turn of events, as she would have hoped Russia will remain knocked out from the religious conflict. She thought Russia has no business in a conflict between Protestants and Catholics. 

The Funeral of Louis XIII and the Renewal of Auld Alliance

Louis XIII de Bourbon, Emperor of France, died on 27 January 1556. Mary sought to renew the Auld Alliance and attended Louis' funeral. The Alliance was renewed by Louis' wife Empress-Regent Jeanne, under the condition that Scotland will not join the Catholic League against France in any condition. While she was a fundamentalist Catholic and couldn't suffer Protestants, Mary agreed to stay neutral to the conflict. 

The Council of Trent

In 1558, Pope Benedictus XIII invited Mary to the Council of Trent, to debate the required reforms to remedy the corruption and other afflictions of the church. Mary decided to attend and delivered a fiery speech about the Protestant pleague and other heresies. 

James the King that Never Was?

On 22 February 1559, Mary's only children James went missing. Seven days of mourning were held in Edinburgh and many foreign princes attended his funeral. The succesion of Stuart Dynasty was in peril. Mary often thought it was because she didn't fight enough for the Catholic cause. Driven by madness, she practiced self-flagellation to the extreme. Multiple scars on her back will stay with her until her death. 

The Religious Betrayal of Sweden

In Sweden, Elizaveta Turov, now Queen Regent of Sweden and sister-in-law with the Prince-Consort of Scotland, turned the country into a Reformed hell. Sigismund looked in horror how his home country departed itself from the ways of Catholicism. This will take a toll on him and his health. 

Mary's miracle pregnancy and her cause of death

On 17 October 1560, the future of the Stuart family was safe. Thanks to a miracle, Mary got pregnant. On 24 July 1561, after a very difficult pregnancy, she gave birth to a healthy son. Sadly, there were complications during birth and she died three days later, on 27 July 1561. Prince-Consort James assumed the Regency for James. 

Politics during the reign of James V

The Regency of Sigismund Bure

The regency of King James V started when he was only three days old, too young to even speak yet. His father, Sigismund Bure, assumed the Regency and took upon himself the hardships of raising a baby as a single father. 

The First Covenant

On 3 December 1561, a powerful group of nobles, called the Lords of the Congregation, drew up a Protestant proclamation which was called the First Covenant, calling for the expulsion of the Catholic Church from Scotland. The motives, were much more to be able to conficate the vast riches of the Catholic Church in Scotland than purely true faith. Sigismund opposed the Lords of the Congregation. 

Protestant Union Declares War

In 1562, Sigismund respected the promise he made to Mary and stayed away from the war of Religious Leagues. Soon, whole Europe was seen trapped in the religious war. Other than Scotland, Venice, Bavaria, numerous German minors, Spain-Portugal and Poland-Lithuania also stayed out of the war. 

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 
In 1564, Poland and Lithuania fused together and formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Sigismund opened an embassy thanks to this ocassion and Scotland started to pursue closer relations to this new state, despite Commonwealth's unhealthy relation with Denmark.

The Printing Press
In 1566, the Printing Press has finally arrived in Edinburgh. This invention from the suburbs of Berlin will change the world as we know it. 

The End of the Four Years' War
The war between the Catholic League and the Evangelical Union ended on 1 August 1566, when the Evangelical Union emerged victorious. Emperor Franz Karl I of Austria has been forced to abdicate and Protestantism became the dominant faith in the Holy Roman Empire. France, Prussia and Bohemia are the new great powers in continental Europe, while Austria is falling. The new order in Europe shook Sigismund to the core. However, seizing the ocassion, he declared Austria as a rival of Scotland. 

Protestants in Perth
Euphoric after the Protestant victory, the underground cult that was residing in Perth decided to make their intentions public. Thus, they seized the church's possesions in Perth and declared that the only true religion of Scotland is Protestantism. Sigismund sent troops to calm down these heretics.

Alliance with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The embassy in Warsaw completed its mission and a military alliance between the Commonwealth and Scotland was signed. Sigismund remembered Jan I that Scotland has been a loyal ally of Lithuania before the personal union happened and it will be just an ally just as loyal to the Commonwealth. 

Death of Sigismund
On 1 July 1568, it was the heart that betrayed the strong Sigismund Bure, Duke of Edinburgh and Prince-Consort Regent of Scotland. He died of a heart attack. Now the regency will fall into the hands of the upper nobility of Scotland. 

The Reorganization of Forts
In 1574, the Regency Council passed the New Forts Act, which disbanded some of the old forts and moved others. This decision came thanks to the high maintenance cost of some, while they were highly uneffective defence-wise. 

James V Coronation
James finally came of age and his coronation was a big event in the country and abroad. Henri II of France, Felipe II of Spain, Jan II of the Commonwealth, Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia and Karl VIII of Sweden all attended, even with the conflict between eachother. They all attended to come with marriage proposals and a possible reformation of Scotland, of course. However, to everyone's shock, James was assasinated at his own coronation. Who did it remains a mystery to this day. Chaos ensued. 

Politics during the Interregnum

The long regency of James V came to nothing in the end. The whole country was dismayed, nothing was sure anymore. Was the Stuart Dynasty extinct? The search for a possible other Stuart started.

In the meantime, Henri II's second son, Walter, assumed the throne and formed a provisional government. Looking to cement his rule as permanent, Walter married Mary Murray, a Scottish lady. The nobles of Scotland were extremely unhappy with this turn of events. On 12 October 1577, they forced Walter to abdicate and move back to France. The nobles proclaimed the Great Republic of Scotland and they named Beathan Seton, the Duke of Ulster, as the first ruler of this state. Without the Stuart Dynasty, there wil be no kings. 

The Return of the King

On 2 February 1580, a man entered the Edinburg Palace and claimed he is the long lost son of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. He claims to be James, the King that never was, that dissapeared in 1559. The upper nobility was shocked but remained skeptic. It could all be ploy to destroy Scotland. 

The Pretender James claims he was abducted and kept in house arrest for years by no other than Grand Councilor Beathan Seton. James claimed that Seton was in league with the McDonald clan, former rulers of the Lordship of the Isles, and their leader Domhnall. The scandal shook the entire nobility. Beathan, who happened to be present, dismissed the claims as ramblings of a lunatic. But some of the nobles insisted this required an investigation. Beathan then tried to fled the bulding but he was stopped by the former royal guards (now the republican guards).

The Earl of Caithness called the Leslie Dragoons and ordered General Sinclair to investigate the Inner Hebrides. When they arrived there, the Dragoons were surprised to see 66000 men ready to battle with Domhnall leading the charge. The entire army of the Dragoons was slaughtered. 

When he found the news, Emperor Henri II of France was shocked to no end. He immediately accepted James as the real son of Mary, who he held dear, as she was like a second mother to him, thanks to her close relation to Jeanne, Empress-Mother of France. James married his daugher, Adelaide of France, in Notre Dame de Paris. Henri gifted James an army of 30000 men to fight against the rebellious nobles. 

When he returned to Scotland with his 30000 men, he named Garry Murray as the General of the Royal Army and sent him to destroy the traitors. And so he did. The 66000 men of Domhnall didn't stood a chance against the French army professionalism. Domhnail died in battle and Beathan was beheaded in Edinburgh on 11 July 1581. 

This event will become Scotland's national day. The victory against traitors will soon become a national symbol. The Stuart Lion killed the poisonous snakes.Higher protection measure had been taken for the monarchs after this horrible event.

Politics during the reign of James VI

James VI held his coronation on 14 July 1581 and he invited all the monarchs of Europe, even his rivals from Denmark and Austria. He held a speech about the new era that will be ushered in Scotland and how important it is to have faith in your king. The Scottish people had faith in the Stuart Dynasty and the traitors were defeated. The speech was received with tremendous applause. Once in peril of extinction, the Stuarts literally rose from their grave.

The era between James V and the VI was renamed as the Interregnum. Every act adopted by traitorous Beathan Seton was anulled. 

The Birth of Henri
James and Adelaide had their first son born on the date of 11 November 1982. James held a big celebration in name of his son and named him Henri in honour of his good friend, Henri II of France. 

The Death of Henri
On 14 February 1586, Henri II of France, Emperor of all the French, Occitan, Burgundians, left this world. James attended his funeral and he renewed the Auld Alliance with the new emperor, Henri's son Louis XIV.

The Golden Jacobean Era
The rule of James VI saw a period of peace, prosperity and the fine arts flourished. Queen Adelaide shifted her energies from factional politics to patronage of the arts and constructed her own magnificent court, hosting one of the richest cultural salons in Europe. The religious minorities beneffited of this era of tolerance. James VI will also be remembered for his numerous projects in Ireland that raised the standard of living. 

The Death of Louis XIV
In 1599, Louis XIV went to meet his father in heaven. James VI attended his funeral and renewed the Auld Alliance with his son, Francois I. 

The Death of Elizabeth I of England and Union of the Crowns

When Robert Cecil told her that she must go to bed, she snapped "Must is not a word to use to princes, little man". She died on 28 April 1603 at Richmond Palace, between two and three in the morning. A few hours later, Cecil and the council set their plans in motion and proclaimed James King of England.

From Edinburgh to London
On 31 May, James left Edinburgh for London, promising to return every three years (a promise that he did not keep), and progressed slowly southwards. Local lords received him with lavish hospitality along the route and James was amazed by the wealth of his new land and subjects, claiming that he was "swapping a stony couch for a deep feather bed".

Anglicanism Triumfant
While Scotland conquered England through succession, England conquered Scotland through religion. James was fascinated by the organization of the Anglican Church and, as the new King of England, he wanted to be the head of it. Thus, James converted to Anglicanism and tried to make Scotland and Ireland adopt it too.

Death of James VI and I
On 17 September 1610, James VI of Scotland and Ireland and I of English has died in his bed. He was suffering of numerous illnesses in the last years of his life. James was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Politics during the reign of Henri I

Henri I kept his French name on his ascension on the Scottish, Irish and English throne. Henri fined individuals  who had failed to attend his coronation. He married Agne von Habsburg, Wladyslaw III of the Commonwealth's daughter. Later, in 1611, he attended his brother-in-law coronation in Warsaw, as he was crowned Stefan II. 

In 1612, the heir to the Scottish, Irish and English thrones was born. Alexander Stuart, the firstborn of Henri, was a beautiful blond boy that will rule three kingdoms in the future.

On 9 September 1613, Henri I declared himself the Defender of the Anglican faith and vowed to strengthen the bounds between the Church of Scotland and Ireland with the existing one in England since the rule of Henry VIII. 

On 26 June 1614, the Parliament of Scotland and England passed the Sunday Schools Act 1614. This Act sees to improve the literacy and knowledge in religious and moral matters. 

On 20 September 1614, Henri attended the funeral of his great-uncle Gustav II of Sweden. The Swedish Crown suffered a hit amidst the war with Russia. On 14 October, the Russians conquered Stockholm. In the chaos that was created, young Karl, the King of Sweden, died because of a loose cannon. General Karl Bonde seized the oportunity and proclaimed himself Karl IX of Sweden, only for him too to die in battle against the combined forces of Russia and Bohemia. Gustav III followed shortly after Karl, but died as well after a few days. From the ashes, Christina Vasa, Gustav II's widow, arose and assumed the throne.

Back in Scotland, Henri oversaw the construction of several Universities in Scotland and Ireland. The University of Edinburg will become one of the most prestigious in the entire Europe. 

On 9 July 1623, Queen-Consort Agne von Habsburg died. By late 1622, Agne's bouts of illness had become debilitating. Henri was devastaded as she loved Agne deeply. The nobles of England started to press him to remarry. He categorically refused, until March 1624 when he met Mary Dishington, daughter of Lord Leslie of Cumberland. She married her in the Westminster Abbey, the first Queen of Scotland to marry in the Abbey. 

In 1625, the last Catholic province of Ireland agreed to convert to Anglicanism. 

Henri died in 1629 from apoplexy after converting to Catholicism on his deathbed and was buried in the Westminster Abbey near his father's tomb. 

Politics during the reign of Alexander I

Alexander's coronation took place in London on 19 May 1629. Until the birth of his first son, his brother Prince James (who was only 10 years old in 1629) will be the heir apparent. 

Marriage with Ana of Spain

In 1630, Alexander married Ana of Spain, the sister of King Carlos II of Spain. Marrying a Catholic, Alexander infuriated a part of the court, especially the most devout English nobles who despised Catholicism. 

Enforcing Anglicanism in Nova Scotia
To distact the nobles attention from his very Catholic wife, Alexander travelled to Halifax to met Micheil Knox, the Governor of Nova Scotia. Together, they agreed to enforce the Anglican faith in the colony, passing a series of acts to promote Anglicanism in Nova Scotia. 

The Second Evangelical Union
In 1634, the differences between Catholics and Protestants ignited another religious conflict. While most of the Holy Roman Empire was officialy Protestant by now, the Catholic minority in every German state was like a powder keg. Countries of Europe banded together again to crush others, be it for religion or hunger for more land. Once again Scotland was in the position to join the Protestants and ruin its relation with Catholic France and the Commonwealth or stay neutral. Once again, the Ottomans intervened and joined the Protestant League. 

End of the Auld Alliance
Alexander went to Paris to discuss the matters with Nicolas-Henri I of France. When he arrived in Versailles, Alexander was not received with too much warmth. Nicholas-Henri I refused to sign the continuation of the Auld Alliance and instead he demanded Alexander to cease his meddling in England and abandon the Personal Union. After so many centuries, the madness of the Hundred Years' War was still not over. Alexander refused and Nicolas called him a dirty Anglican. This was the end of the French-Scottish friendly relationship. When he arrived back in London, Alexander I of Scotland, Ireland, France and England announced that, as devout Anglican sovereign of the British Isles, that his Kingdoms will join the Protestant League. He also condemned the unhumane methods the French Emperor is using to supress the Huguenots. The King's speech was received with tremendous applause in the English Parliament. 

The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ends its alliance with Scotland-England
Wladyslaw IX of the Commonwealth did not receive the news of Scotland joining the Protestant League well. Wladyslaw considered himself the real Dynasty of von Habsburgs, unlike the heretics that were now rulling the Archduchy of Austria. 

New Alliances and Friends
To compensate the loss of the old allies, Alexander travelled throughout Europe to build new alliances. First, he went to Constantinople to meet Padishah, young Osman II, who joined the Protestant League in order to contain the Commonwealth's power. Osman II gifted him a beautiful crown made of steel. After that, Alexander travelled to Wien to ally the real Habsburgs, not the cheap knock-off from Poland. The Archduke was more than happy to see that Scotland joined their side. After Wien, it was time to ally Bohemia and their mighty army. Queen-Elector Alexia threw a grandious party in Prague. 

Catholics Revolts in Nova Scotia
The Catholic zealots in Nova Scotia didn't take the enforcement of Anglicanism lightly. In 1635, they revolted against the King and the Governor. However, they were weak, and the Governor subdued their force rather easily.

Alexander divorces Ana
Ana was becoming increasingly cruel and had no plans to bed with Alexander and create a heir to the throne. Ana was becoming a thorn in Alexander's side, so he got rid of her. On 20 march 1636, he divorced her. The decision was well received by the nobles, but not by the King of Spain. In a moment of immense anger, he joined the Catholic League. Making things personal will cost him the lives of many subjects. 

Marriage with Marie von Julichgau
Alexander then married Marie of Bohemia, Queen-Elector Alexia's sister. The Julichgau family was new on the throne of Bohemia, after the last Bourbon in Prague died of smallpox. Their ancestral home was in the Duchy of Verden. Marie was a Protestant and her marriage to Alexander in Westminster Abbey became the biggest event in Alexander's rule so far. Thousands of people gathered to see the two getting married. 

HRE - Under Austria Again
After the death of the last Clevian Emperor, Karl I of Austria was elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The last von Habsburg Emperor ruled more than 50 years ago, when he lost the First Religious War (Also called Four Years' War) and was forced to abdicate. Now the von Habsburgs learned their lesson and converted to the true faith. 

The Birth of James
Alexander's first son, James, was born on 2 September 1637. 

War of the Catholic League
Nicholas-Henri I of France officialy declared war to the Austrian Emperor Karl I on 10 February 1638. The war included almost everyone in Europe this time. Somehow, Netherlands and Norway managed to stay neutral. The Scottish Royal Army started their invasion of France in Calais, the historical English province that was cowardly stolen by the French. 

On 20 September 1638, Alexander signed the Unified Army Command Act, making the armies of Scotland and England more coordinated. 

The first major battle the Scottish Army led by Robert Cochrane encountered was the Battle of Picardie, where Bernand the Champm's army was slaughtered. After the battle, the Scottish army easily conquered the Citadel of Picardie after a short siege. 

The war ended on 23 December 1642. After four years of war, hundred of thousands died on both sides, but the Protestant League emerged victorious. The war changed the status quo in Europe and curbed France's dominance, dozen of new states being released from the greedy Emperor's grasp. A bunch of German states joined the Duchy of Verden, by force or willingly and formed the Kingdom of Hannover, ruled now by Johann Adolf II von Julichgau. The dynasty of Scotland's Queen-Consort will prove useful in the future. 

Alliance with Hannover
The new state in Western Germany will prove to be a useful ally to the Scottish-English Crown. Alexander travelled to Hanover to sign the alliance pact with Johann Adolf II. His wife, Marie, accompanied him to visit her distant relatives. 

Death of Alexander I
Alexander died on 9 August 1650. His rule will be viewed as one of the most favourable among the Stuart Kings that ruled both Scotland and England. While he didn't score new territories for the Kingdoms, Alexander emerged victorious in the war of the leagues that changed Europe forever. He'll be forever remembered for his diplomacy and strong wit.

Politics during the reign of James VII and II

The death of Alexander marked the end of the Alexandrian Era, but also a start of another golden Jacobean era.His son, James VII of Scotland (and II of England) gained the throne at the age of twelve. His mother, Marie von Julichgau, assumed the Regency and converted to Anglicanism. 

Act of Union 1652
Marie was a very intelligent women. Alexander was telling her night by night how he was dreaming of an united Kingdom under the rule of Stuarts. With this in mind, he contacted all the upper nobility and together they signed a treaty and agreed that the matter will be discussed in both Parliaments when James comes of age. 

On 2 September 1652, James VII held his coronation in the Westminster Abbey and held a speech about the idea of Great Britain. Two days later, the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England discussed the matter and finally agreed to unite, signing the "Treaty of Union" . The Parliament of England passed the Act of Union 1652, making it official. The Act stated:"the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon the 1st May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain."

Thus, the Kingdom of Great Britain was born.

Cultural Shift
With the union, the English cultural became the dominant one, over the Scottish. The old rites that were held by Scottish Kings in Edinburgh were abandoned for the English ones.

James marries a local noblewoman
As a gest of goodwill, James VII married Anne Hyde, daughter of one of the most influential nobles in England, the Duke of Norfolk.

The Bengal Delta
In 1653, James pursued the nobles ambition to establish a stronger foothold in India. Thus, he declared war on the Sultanate of Bengal. 

Birth of Charles
The first son of James and the heir to the throne was born on 8 January 1654. He named him Charles. 

The Rise of Netherlands
After a bloody war with Denmark and its allies, Netherlands completely anihilated the Danish troops and conquered almost all of the Northern Juland state of Denmark. Rivals in the past, Great Britain and Denmark are now united by the hubris of the Dutch, who puts in peril the entire trade in the English Channel and in Lubeck, and the access through the Baltic Sea. Frederik Henrik II of Netherlands also made the mistake of leaving the Holy Roman Empire. On 17 August 1657, James signed a military alliance treaty with Christian V of Denmark. 

Aiding the Ottomans
In 1658, Osman II called the nation of Great Britain in war against the forces of Persia, Baluchistan, Hormuz and Russia. 

Vassalisation of Carib
The Duchy of Carib swore fealty to the Kingdom of Great Britain on 2 July 1663, after Governor Richard York of British Colombia made a visit to Uyapari. Duke Ilumanni denounced their alliance with France and expulsed the French ambassador. 

War against the Netherlands
The time to curb Netherlands' trade influence has come. Bohemia, Austria, Hanover and Denmark joined the glorious cause. The war ended on 17 April 1666, with the Dutch territories in Denmark returned to Christian V, Switzerland almost dissapearing from the map and with James VII carving a piece of Netherlands for the Great Britain.

Ewiger Landfriede
The Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, Joseph I, managed to convince all the electors and a majority of the princes to adopt a reform that will disallow internal wars in the empire. Member states will have to solve their dispute in the court of law from now on. 

War with Bahmanis
James continued the conquest of Indian provinces and the further expansion of the East Indian Charter. On 19 March 1668, he declared war on the Sultanate of Bahmanis, Sultan Amir III's land occupying most of the Indian sub-continent. Bengal joined Bahmanis in the war, seeking to reclaim their lost Delta. However, Bengal lost even more territory, including their capital. On 2 May 1669, the Sultanate of Bengal ceased to exist after James signed the declaration of integration and forced Yusuf II of Bengal to sign it. Yusuf will remain in power, but under Britsh protection. The North Indian Chapter was founded.

The Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
With the Succesion war concluded and the Tsar victorious, Russia, Bohemia and Prussia decided to partition the Commonwealth and divide the land between themselves. The Polish menace is at an end. 

The Petition of Rights
In 1678, the British Parliament passed the Petition of Rights. Under its terms the King could not levy any new taxes without the consent of the Parliament. Furthermore soldiers could not be billeted in private homes. Martial law could not be imposed in time of peace. Finally, the Petitions forbade the imprisonment of individuals without cause. James signed it on 7 May 1678.

March of Flanders
In 1681, after the war against Netherlands started by Denmark, Flanders has come under the influence of James VII. Jan I of Flanders has swore alliegance to Great Britain and it will serve its interests as a March in continental Europe. 

British-Ming Trade War
James promised the merchants and sailors that he will punish MIng for their insolence to declare embargo. And so he did, declaring war on them on 12 July 1682. Emperor Ying I conceded to James' demands and ended the war abruptly. 

Personal Union with Hannover
When James' second cousin Debora I of Hannover died without an heir, the Hannoveran nobled convened that they will fight for James VII claim rather than Bohemia's Josef I. Thus, on 7 November 1684, the Kingdoms of Hannover and Great Britain became one under the same King.

Death of James VII
One month later, James sadly died of pneumonia. Winston Carleton, Lord of Hampshire, rose against Charles II and claim the throne for himself. 

Politics during the reign of Charles II

Charles II was crowned King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hannover on 9 December 1685. Charles married Anne Percy eight years before and already had a son, Prince James. The succesion was as strong as iron. 



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