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3. Conflicts and wars

English Conquest of Ulaidh (1447-1452)

Henry VI of England tried to move the attention of the nobles from his fairly obvious infertility and madness towards the conquest of Irish lords. First, he subdued the Earldom of Tyrone, which had no allies and it was easily crushed. Then he turned his attention to Ulster. Arrogant as always, he dismissed his advisors fears that Scotland might join Ulster's side thanks to their recently signed alliance. Henry VI Lancaster declared war to the Earldom of Ulster in 1447. Scotland joined the war almost instantly.

England suffered great losses in the war between 1447 and 1450. Tyrone, The Pale, Mann, Cumbria and Northumberland were occupied by the combined forces of Ulster, Scotland and its vassal lord of the Isles. The English tried to invade the Marches twice and failed. In 1450, Scotland secured the border, maintaing control of Cumbria and Northumberland. In the same year, seeing the military success and prestige this war has brought, King James II decided to command a second army of Scotland, maintained in Cumbria. 

In July 1450, the Isles occupied Lancashire and tried to occupy Chester, but their army has been anihilated by the English army led by Plantagenet. In September of the same year, England regained control of Lancashire. At the end of the same year, Lollard Heretics started to cause trouble for the English so they had to move their troops in the southern part of their territory to eliminate this threat.

The war finally ended in 1452, England suffering a lot of losses, its hegemony over the British Isles being put in question.
 

English-Ulsterian War
Part of the English-Irish Wars
Add most important battle here
Date 15 June 1477 – 1 November 1452
Location British Isles
Result Decisive Ulsterian-Scottish Victory
End of English Hegemony over England
Territorial
changes
England cedes Pale and Tyrone to Ulster
England cedes Mann, Cumbria and Northumberland to Scotland
Belligerents

Earldom of Ulster
Kingdom of Scotland
Lordship of the Isles

Kingdom of England
Commanders and leaders
James II
Art Roe Maggings
Alasdair MacDonald
David Leslie
Henry IV
Richard Plantagenet
 
Battle of Ulaidh
Part of English Conquest of Ulaidh
Date 20 November 1447
Location Ulaidh, Ulster
Result Scottish Victory
Belligerents
England Scotland
Commanders and leaders
Richard Plantagenet David Leslie
Strength
11516 infantry
5000 cavalry
14000 infantry
5000 cavalry
 
Battle of West March
Part of English Conquest of Ulaidh
Date 9 August 1448
Location West March, Scotland
Result Scottish Victory
Belligerents
England Scotland
Commanders and leaders
Denny Suibhne
Richard Plantagenet
David Leslie
Strength
14000 infantry
5000 cavalry
14000 infantry
5000 cavalry
 
Battle of East March
Part of English Conquest of Ulaidh
Date 11 December 1448
Location East March, Scotland
Result English Victory
Belligerents
England Scotland
Commanders and leaders
Richard Plantagenet David Leslie
Strength
20000 infantry
2000 cavalry
6000 infantry
3000 cavalry
 
Battle of Cumbria
Part of English Conquest of Ulaidh
Date 17 December 1449
Location England
Result Scottish Victory
Belligerents
England Scotland
The Isles
Commanders and leaders
Richard Plantagenet
2nd English Army
David Leslie
Artair O Brun
Strength
17000
9000
13000
1000
 
Second Battle of Cumbria
Part of English Conquest of Ulaidh
Date 19 May 1449
Location England
Result Scottish Victory
Belligerents
England Scotland
The Isles
Ulster
Commanders and leaders
Richard Plantagenet
Henry IV
David Leslie
Artair O Brun
Strength
25000 20000

Scottish-Irish Wars of 1460s

Conquest of Sligeach (1459 - 1460)


Following the personal union with Ulster, James II renewed the ambition of many of his ancestors to bring the Irish petty lords under the rule of mighty Scotland. In the year of our lord 1459, Scotland declared war to the Kingdom of Sligo. Kingdom of Leinster honored the militgary alliance it has with Sligo and joined the war against Scotland. The King divided the Scottish armies into two forces: one that will occupy Sligeach and one that will deal with Leinster.

The battle for Sligeach went with no troubles, the battle being won very easily by David Leslie and his men. Thus the siege of Sligeach commenced on 9 March 1459. As for Leinster, James II led an army of 10000 men, ready to meet the Leinsterian forces, only to find no resistence. The siege of Laighin also commenced on 2 August 1459. On 9 August, the province of Sligeach finally entered under Scotland's control. 

The war ended for Leinster when the castle of Laighin fell to the Scottish forces led by James II. Leinster agreed to pay Scotland war reparations and transfer its trade power for the next 10 years.

On 2 January 1460, the war officialy ended with the annexation of Sligeach. The province has been granted to Ulster.

Conquest of Connacht (1460-1461)

The next Irish petty king to be subdued was Ulick of Clanricarde. He stood no chance in the battle of Connacht. The annexation of Clanricarde happened in the following year, 1461.

Conquest of Ui Failghe (1461)

Another Petty King that stayed in control for far too long. It's time for Offaly to bow its head to the Scottish might. The war didn't even last a year. 

Conquest of Cill Dara (1461)

The Earldom of Kildare has found itself between the jaws of Ulster and Scotland's ambition for an united Ireland under Scotland. The FitzGerald Dynasty couldn't stay in the way. 

French Conquest of Auxerrois (1473-1475)

Charles VII, now Emperor of France, grew tired of the arrogance of Burgundy and declared war on them while they were busy in their occupation of Normandy. Scotland honored their military alliance with France and sent its navy to blockade the Dutch coast.

French Reconquest of Alencon (1477-1480)

Charles VII grew tired of the Angevin pretentions of England as well. In the year of 1477 he declared war on the victorious War of the Roses winner Edward IV of York. Clemens VII broke his promise to not intervene in any wars between Scotland and England. 

David Leslie met no reistance in northern England. Instead, he got to see what the War of the Roses did to the beautiful English lands. However, in May 1478, the English armies started to appear again in mainland England, after they returned exhausted from the lost battles for the continental provinces. Henry Cornwallis led an army of 9000 men to stop the advance of the 25000 Scottish force. Safe to say, it didn't go well. The battle of Lincolnshire meant the end for Henry's army.

In 1479, the Duke of Brittany signed a peace treaty with France, losing the province of Nantais. Now England and the Papal States are alone in the war against the French, Scottish and Spanish Armada. On 17 August 1479, the main army of Castille commenced the Siege of London, while the 1st Scottish Army was occupying the province of Oxford. 

On 11 February 1480, the city of London had fallen and the war ended. Emperor Charles VII forced England's hand and made them cede the provinces of Chester, Scarborough, York and Lancashire to Scotland, while keeping Contentin for themselves. Also, the English King will renounce his claims on the other French provinces and will recognize de Valois family as the rightful rulers of France now and forever. 

Intervention in the Swedish War for Independence (1545-1550)

The Swedish War for Independece left Scotland and England on the same side. While Elizabeth and Mary hated each other, they collaborated with the new self-declared King of Sweden, Gustav I of House Bure. The 25000 Scottish Troops embarked on the Royal Navy and tried to land in Lund, but they met the Danish Royal Navy of Christian Daa in open sea. Luckily, they survived without much trouble. However, they've been pursued in the sea by the second Royal Navy of Christian von Trampe. An enourmous navy of more than 100 war galleys. But the scottish ships stood tall and escaped the jaws of this enourmous shark. 

The 25000 men finally landed in the province of Kalmar and met in battle the 6th Army of Denmark commanded by Frans Rosenom. While Denmark ruled the seas, their armies were weak. It was a decisive victory. Thus began the land operation in Sweden. The next battle was in Stockholm and the brave Archibald fought the savage Norwegian troops that were trying to burn the city. Unfortunately for the Swedish-English-Scottish troops, treacherous Poland and their enslaved Lithuania joined Denmark in the war. This Independence war will turn out to be more bloody than anticipated. 

Near Stockholm, the Danish sharks have finally found the Scottish Navy. With the help of ballistas from the walls of Stockholm, Donald Ruthven defeated the mighty Danish Navy and captured 6 of their ships. Now the Baltic Sea is in Scotland's hand!

Archibald's army advanced in southern Sweden and laid siege to the captured fort of Elfsborg. The siege only lasted 20 days and every surviving Danish soldier were taking prisoners. The lands of Sweden were free again and now the Scottish army was advancing in the Danish territory. Next, it was time for the fortress city of Lund to fall. The investment in cannons was a good decision of Mary's, because the city fell in 30 days with its walls completely broken down. 

On 27 August 1546, the Leslie Dragoons started the siege for Denmark's capital. Its walls proved stronger than the ones of Lund and Elfsborg. The siege of Sjaelland lasted 352 days.

In Stockholm, a new pretender arose. Magnus Armfeldt, one of the most rich nobles in Sweden, decided that his claim to the Swedish throne was Stronger than Gustav's. A force of 27000 men started to laid siege in Stockholm while the allied forces were busy in Denmark. 

When the last province of Denmak proper fell, the rats that were hiding in a secret bay finally revealed themselves. Christian von Trampe's remaining navy attacked the now considerably more large Scottish Royal Navy. Christian lost and ran away to hide on the island of Bornholm. But the brave Royal Navy pursued him. 

On 1 July 1548, the Armfeldt traitor was finally dealt with in the province of Kalmar. He was beheaded on spot by Archibald. 

Next, it was time for the island of Gotland to fall. The siege lasted 29 days and the survivors jumped in the water in fear they'll be captured. One of them was Princess Margaret of Denmark. 

The Muscovite forces joined the war in 1549. With an ambition similar to Mary's, Queen-Regent Yuliya wanted to curb Poland's influence in the region and take back her lands from Denmark. Muscovy was truly weak, however. On 19 September 1549, Yuliya signed a peace treaty with Denmark. Yuliya and her son were murdered by a palace coup. Thus, the Tsardom of Russia was proclaimed by the boyars and the Interregnum started. 

The peasants of Sjealland had enough of the Swedish occupation and arose in rebellion. A force of 36000 poor equipped souls tried to take down the small occupation force left in the capital of Denmark while the Swedish and Scottish troops were invading Denmark's possesions in Estonia. 

On 10 January 1550, Denmark signed a peace treaty with Sweden and ended the war and accepted their independence, also losing some of their possesions in Karelia. 

Danish Conquest of Skaraborg (1584-1586)

Alas, peace wasn't neverending in the rule of James VI. In 1584, Denmark decided to declare war on Sweden and James had to honour the military alliance he had with Sweden. Elizabeth I of England did the same. Sadly, the Commonwealth decided to pursue their military alliance with Denmark, thus Scotland and Commonwealth became enemies. 

While England and Scotland occupied parts of Denmark, the Commonwealth was completely overwhleming Sweden coming from the north-east. Soon the capital and almost the entire country was under enemy control.

The war ended with white peace on 3 October 1586 as neither side could anihilate the other. 

Savoyard Succesion War (1594-1596)

When the last of the di Savoia Duke died, one of Louis XIV's distant relatives assumed the throne of Savoy. However, he was frail and he didn't last more than one year. War broke out between Bourbon France and Bourbon Spain after he died. Now we are dragged into this war, a mess created by the Bourbon family.

The war ended with a decisive victory of France and Spain losing the provinces of Vizcaya, Navarra and Rosellon. Felipe II was forced to abdicate to his son Juan IV and leave in exile. France was declared the de jure leader of House de Bourbon and they'll have dominance over any de Bourbon succession in the future. Thus, the Duchy of Savoy remains under the rule of Louis XIV.
 

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